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Novum Organum

December 17th, 2016

Novum Organum. (translation of Jose kings of Andrade). So Paulo: New Culture, 1997, P. 33 – 98. Francis summary bacon, published in 1620 its more famous workmanship, the Novum Organum, that, in the intention of the author would have to substitute the aristotelian Organum. In this workmanship Aristotle it presents its logic, essentially deductive, that would have to lead the philosophy to the truth.

Bacon philosopher of modernity opposes to this method of the estagirista and considers a new method, the induction for elimination. First part of workmanship (the only one that we withhold), called interpretation of the nature and the kingdom of the man, the philosopher is worried in demonstrating that the effective methods, deductive in the philosophy and the inductive one for enumeration in some sciences were unproductive. Associated to this it also had the chokes of the reason that it called dolos and finally he presents a new method that he aims at to the production of more coherent knowledge. The problem of the deduction is that it instead of interpreting nature, looks for to anticipate it, leaving of side the experiment and, being based on general axioms, it judges everything and it supplies an explanation everything, that is, it constructs premature slight knowledge of the nature for using an inadequate method. Therefore, it concludes who, the traditional logic was useless for the research of sciences and the philosophy.

As well as the numerical induction whose axioms are extracted improperly, by means of a fast and illegitimate ticket of few particular cases for the universal one. Beyond criticizing the effective method of the time, it presented the chokes of the reason human being, for the philosopher, those that if withheld the scientific speculations and the philosophical reflections must have care with the deturpadores of the truth that it calls dolos. These are false slight knowledge that invade the human intellect, becoming difficult the access the truth. It has four types of dolos: of the tribe, who is structuralized from the nature human being, because of the influence of wills of the human affection; of the cave that has for base the individuality, that is influenced by the education, the habits and customs; of the forum that if it originates from the social relations it has influence of the language; of the theater that derives from the philosophical doctrines. When presenting these obstacles of the reason, bacon affirms that it has the necessity of an aid for the reason, therefore, establishes a new inductive logic for elimination. This consists of extracting of the particular facts axioms (average) interpretativos of the nature, similar of, getting safer common knowledges. The induction proposal for Bacon is called elimination, therefore it aims at from a basic idea of determined phenomenon to eliminate the false hypotheses with intention to make to be valid a true theory. For in such a way these the three thematic ones are worked for Bacon in the first part, to criticize the effective methods, to display the chokes of the reason and to present a new method for the philosophy.


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