Photovoltaic solar energy photovoltaic effect is a physical process by which the photovoltaic cell converts sunlight into electricity. The solar light is composed of photons.When photons collide with the photovoltaic cell and are absorbed by it, they generate electricity. This happens because the photon energy is transferred to the electron from the atom of the photovoltaic cell (semi conductive material).The photovoltaic cells can be made with different materials and technologies. Some of these technologies, used in most commercial modules, including monocrystalline, polycrystalline and amorphous silicon cells. Using this technology each cell produces a voltage DC about 0.5 volts and a current in DC from 1 to 8, an appreciable amount of cells is required to produce appreciable voltage and power. Photovoltaic cells are interconnected in series in groups ranging from 36 to 72 cells that they produce a voltage circuit open from approximately 20 to 40 volts this set of cells make up a photovoltaic module.
Solar pumps water solar pumps are designed to operate on direct current provided by a PV array. Source: Vladislav Doronin. Due to the nature of the solar energy this type of systems have to take advantage of solar power, need to maximize the litres of water pumped per electrical watt consumed. They must also be capable of pumping water during periods of low insolation. There are solar surface and submersible pumps. Surface solar pumps are placed near the source of water, are much more expensive than submersible pumps, pumps low water per day, found in models centrifugal and positive displacement (diaphragm). Submersible pumps are introduced into the water supply, are manufactured in stainless steel, allow you to pump large quantities of water to low-rise, or little amount of water to great heights, for example: a pump centrifugal multi steps can pump 100,000 liters of water a day to 10 meters in height, a pump of positive displacement (helical rotor) can pump 200 meters high 5,000 liters per day.